Category Archives: Antibiotics

Viral infection symptoms

The deep socio-economic changes, taking place in different countries, lead not only to changes in the quality of life, but also cause adverse trends in the growing number of diseases. This makes the assessment of the viral infections incidence particularly important.

Despite the undoubted achievements in the fight against infectious diseases, their importance in the overall incidence structure does not only decrease, but also shows an increasing trend, according to various estimates. Due to this, the timely diagnosis and detection of viral infection symptoms play a special role.

Microscopic organisms evolve with the development of humanity and expand the number of diseases. New methods for the treatment and prevention of diseases do not reduce the number of affected persons in developed and developing countries (such as USA, India, Australia, Canada and the UK).

The viral infection symptoms can vary depending on the type of infection, duration of infection, age of people, and many other factors. This review will address some of the most common viral infections symptoms.

Viral hepatitis

This disease is characterized by hepatic inflammation and can have acute or chronic forms. Viral hepatitis is a common intestinal infection with fecal-oral mechanism of transmission. The causes of infection are eating a variety of foods, not exposed to heat treatment, drinking raw water, and dirty hands.

Children or toddlers are most commonly infected with viral hepatitis. This viral infection symptoms are fever, dizziness, muscle aches, fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting and frequent bowel movements.

One of the first viral hepatitis symptoms is fever, which often persists within 1-2 days. Rare disease signs are low blood pressure and tachycardia.

HIV infection

The disease progresses slowly, affecting the cells of the immune system and causing the body loose its ability of defending itself against microorganisms. HIV infection can significantly reduce the life expectancy of the patient, so timely detection of the viral infection symptoms is essential.

Adults and especially older people have an increased risk of rapid disease progression. Obvious viral infection symptoms are rash, fever, swollen lymph nodes and weight loss. Less commonly observed are nausea, diarrhea and enlargement of the liver or spleen.

The second phase of HIV infection is called asymptomatic and may last for several years. During this time, people lead normal lifestyle and feel well, so the efforts of many international medical organizations are aimed at identifying the first symptoms.

Influenza virus infection

Influenza is an acute infectious disease that spreads around the world in the form of an annual outbreak. Influenza agent is characterized by unusual volatility, adaptability and the formation of totally new strains.

Influenza is a disease with a short incubation period. Its common viral infection symptoms are sore throat, lethargy, drowsiness, muscle weakness, low blood pressure, chills, fever, headache and cough.

Diagnosis of the flu is not difficult, and domiciliary treatment is usually enough for fighting it. However, hospitalization may be required in severe influenza symptoms, such as high fever, combined with high temperature, frequent vomiting and meningeal syndrome.

Herpes virus infections

This is a group of widespread infections, which are often characterized by the ability of pathogens to the life-long survival in human bodies. Viruses can stay in the patient’s body for a long time without the active reproduction, metabolism, and symptoms onset.

Herpesviruses are combined into the vast Herpesviridae family, consisting of more than 100 representatives. Only 8 of them are pathogens for humans. They are divided into three subfamilies, depending on the type of genome, immunological characteristics and cells they affect.

Herpes viral infection symptoms can vary, depending on many factors. Common signs are irritability, problematic food intake, lesions of mouth mucosa, genital tract, skin, and nervous system.

Other types of viral infections

There are many types of viral infections, which often cause diseases. These may include polio, infectious mononucleosis, measles, rubella, smallpox, tick-borne encephalitis, and many others.

Viral infection symptoms and bacterial infection symptoms can be similar, so it is first necessary to identify the type of the protozoa and then prescribe treatment. Duration of treatment with antiviral drugs depends on the severity of symptoms, forms of the disease, age, affected cells or tissues.

Resistant staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous pathogen microorganisms, which causes serious hospital-acquired and community-associated infections. The uniqueness of Staphylococcus aureus bacterium is the fact that it has developed resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics for many decades.

The pharmacological group of beta-lactam antibiotics includes five major classes of antibacterial drugs, such as:

  • Monobactams (Aztreonam)
  • Carbacephems (Loracarbef)
  • Penems (Imipenem, Meropenem, Faropenem)
  • Cephalosporins of the first, second and third generation (Cephalexin, Cefadroxil, Cephapirin, Cefuroxime, Cefaclor, Cefuroxime, Cefamandole, Cefmetazole, Cefdinir, Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Ceftizoxime, Moxalactam).
  • Penicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Azlocillin, Carbenicillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Mezlocillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin, Piperacillin, Ticarcillin).

Multidrug resistant to staphylococcus aureus significantly complicates the treatment of infectious diseases.

The complexity of antibiotic therapy is not only in the fact that staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance to different classes of antibiotics.

Resistant staphylococcal infection is able to travel into the blood and infect several vital organs. Therefore, diseases caused by this infection can progress rapidly and cause life-threatening conditions, such as toxic shock syndrome, sepsis and pneumonia.

Resistant staphylococcus aureus symptoms are similar to the symptoms of other types of bacterial infections. Therefore, it is impossible to diagnose antibiotic resistant form of staphylococcus aureus only by means of physical examination.

It should be noted that a few decades ago, resistant form of staphylococcus aureus infection was observed only in patients of clinics.

However, during evolution, this staph infection was transformed into community-associated form. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly difficult to control the spread of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus aureus year by year.

Just many other types of bacteria, resistant staphylococcus aureus causes infectious disease only under certain conditions. The diseases caused by resistant S. aureus form are most often diagnosed in immunocompromised people.

Immunosuppression and subsequent development of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus aureus infection can occur because of chronic diseases (such as, skin), injection therapy with psychotropic drugs, pregnancy, or because of injuries.

One of the last known cases of dangerous staph infection because of injury occurred in the USA, at the end of 2015. One of the players of professional American football team New York Giants – Daniel Fells was hospitalized with the symptoms of resistant staphylococcus aureus, which developed while being treated for an ankle injury.

Daniel Fells was diagnosed with the most common form of multidrug resistant infection – Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Within two weeks after the confirmation of MRSA diagnosis, Daniel Fells underwent six operations and a long course of antibiotic therapy.

Thanks to timely treatment of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, Daniel Fells managed to prevent the development of dangerous complications. However, because of the operations he underwent, Daniel Fells unlikely will be able to play football again.

MRSA is the most common term used when describing resistant staphylococcus aureus. Less common, the term ORSA (Oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) is used in medical journals. These terms have identical definitions.

It is noteworthy that the definitions for MRSA and ORSA are incomplete in the Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia states that these types of infections are resistant to cephalosporins and penicillins.

However, there is no information in the Wiki that staphylococcus aureus bacterium can be resistant to the antibacterial effect of penems, monobactams and carbacephems. Therefore, Wikipedia and other unreliable sources of information should not be used for self-treatment of dangerous infectious diseases.

Be sure to inform a health care professional about the occurrence of any signs and symptoms of bacterial infections (including cases of staphylococcus aureus relapse).

Timely medical assistance and adequate antibiotic therapy can help to stop the development of multidrug resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA / ORSA) and quickly to cure this potentially dangerous bacterial infection.

Rash from antibiotics

People around the world can buy antibiotics over the counter in regular pharmacies. The popularity and the relative availability of antibiotics have resulted in their often misuse or overuse. It does not increase the efficacy of treatment and causes side effects.

Rash and other skin diseases are a natural body reaction to the antibiotics action. List of antibiotics exceeds hundreds of names, and if you study the package inserts, practically each of them mentions rash or similar side effects.

By reviewing the forums, dedicated to infections treatment, you can find many pictures or images of “rash from antibiotics”. Face and hands suffer in the first place, so many people, especially the young, worry and ask questions:

  • How long does it last?
  • Is there any rash that won’t go away?
  • How long does a rash from antibiotics last?

Clindamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin and other popular anti-bacterial agents can cause skin irritation, but it is very rare and mild. If the rash was dangerous for skin health and beauty, the antibiotics would not be one of the most commonly used class of drugs.

Rash from treatment with antibiotics can be not only a side effect, but also a sign of an allergic reaction. If rash was preceded by a sense of fear, anxiety, dizziness or sweating, it can be a symptom of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock).

A medical examination is recommended, if the rash causes concern. Diagnosing rash from antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) is possible through a skin test. However, skin examination does not work for all drugs.

Rash from antibiotics in toddler, children, adults and elderly people may be caused not only by the active ingredients, but also by excipients and colorants that pills contain. If you are allergic to one of the common excipients, then you should talk to the pharmacist and inform him about the allergy before you buy antibiotics.

People often believe that they have a skin rash from antibiotics, but the rash is sometimes a symptom of the disease. It is easier for the bacteria to get to the skin, and if they get there and begin to actively proliferate, the body can respond with rash or redness.

Rash and other reactions to antibiotics most often appear at the beginning of treatment and are light and short. Antibiotics usually should be taken for a period of 10-14 days. If the rash does not disappear in the middle of the treatment, it is sure to disappear when you stop using the drug.

Overuse of antibiotics

Today, one of the most popular drugs in the world pharmaceutical market is antibiotics. They are used for the treatment of virtually all infectious diseases, and even the diseases, which should not be treated with antibiotics.

Therefore, the rational use of antibiotics is an actual problem of modern medicine. The question of antibiotics overuse by doctors is actively discussed not only in medical articles and mass-media, but also in the World Health Assembly sessions.

Scientists of developed countries spend numerous researches on the effect of antibiotics overuse on the health of humans and in animals. During the studies, the US researchers found that frequent use of antibiotics in children almost completely changes the intestinal microbial flora of the child.

Unhealthy microbial flora can cause allergies, frequent infections and obesity in adolescence. Overuse of antibiotics in children can adversely affect the health in already grown man.

The reason for this is the fact that antibiotics destroy in the infant intestinal tract the beneficial bacteria, which promote maturation of immune cells.

This leads to an increased risk of autoimmune disorders and obesity. Many parents turn to antibiotics as to the first aid in treating even colds in children.

But it is worth knowing that antibiotics kill bacteria, while colds are caused by viruses, against which antibiotics are ineffective. It turns out that the use of an antibiotic is incorrect in such cases.

Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in humans leads to antibiotic resistance, which, in its turn, reduces the treatment efficacy of infectious diseases.

Doctors are particularly concerned with the treatment of the MRSA infection, which is known to many as the “superbug”. This type of bacteria is resistant to a large number of most effective antibiotics.

The difficulty of treating MRSA infection is that MRSA bacterium is not sensitive to many modern antibiotics. Yet, the MRSA treatment will be effective, given the correct drug choice and adherence to the dosing regime.

Experts indicate that the abuse of antibiotics in early childhood can cause allergic asthma. About 110 million people suffer from it today.

According to many doctors and scientists, overuse of antibiotics can lead not only to the violation of the natural intestinal flora, but also to severe inflammatory bowel disease. Researchers from Canada have found a direct connection between the frequent antibiotics use and ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease.

More and more scientific data suggest that antibiotic misuse contributes to the violation of the bacterial balance and causes stomach problems.

A recent study of Danish scientists has confirmed the fact that overuse of antibiotics is associated with the development of type II diabetes. Scientists have determined the cause of diabetes being the frequent antibiotics use, which deprives human organism of some important bacteria.

This disrupts the normal metabolism of the body and the development of certain proteins that promote fat burning. Despite the fact that antibiotics are usually considered safe, abuse of antibiotics can cause a number of side effects.

Disruption of the normal intestinal bacteria balance, caused by overuse of antibiotics, can lead to candidiasis or diarrhea. Allergic reactions are another frequent result of antibiotics overuse, causing a lot of discomfort.

Despite the fact that antibiotics made a real revolution in medicine and are considered a safe means for the treatment of infectious diseases, their unjustified and frequent use should be discontinued.

Otherwise, resistance, caused by overuse of antibiotics, can lead to the situation, when there will be no effective antibiotics for treatment of even the simplest infectious diseases.

MRSA antibiotics

MRSA is a dangerous infectious disease caused by resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (Golden Staph.). Full name of this disease is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Different types of antibacterials (except drugs included in the group of beta-lactam antibiotics) can be used to treat resistant staph infection. It should be noted that about half of all drugs used to treat bacterial infections are beta-lactam antibiotics.

Therefore, to choose antibiotics for MRSA is much more difficult than for the treatment of other types of bacterial infections. When treating MRSA, it is important to choose antibiotics that work, help quickly get rid of the infection and prevent transmission of dangerous bacteria from an infected person to healthy people.

Before starting antibiotic therapy, it is necessary to find out what tissues and organs are already infected with Staphylococcus aureus. In cases if strains of staph infect blood, heart, bone tissue, skin, or lower respiratory tract, intravenously (IV) drugs for MRSA can be administered.

IV antibiotics are used to treat severe MRSA in patients who have failed to respond to other drugs. IV injections or Vancomycin infusions (Vancoled, Vancor, Vancocin, Lyphocin) are used as the first-line therapy of MRSA.

For successfully MRSA cure, this IV antibiotic can be administered in combination with other antibacterials from the rifamycin group (e.g., Rifapentine, Rifampin, Rifabutin) or aminoglycoside group (e.g., Gentamicin, Kanamycin, Neomycin, Paromomycin, Spectinomycin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin).

Unfortunately, not all patients with MRSA manage to cure a dangerous infectious disease after the first course of antibiotic therapy. For the re-treatment of MRSA, IV infusions of antibiotics Linezolid, Daptomycin or Tigecycline can be used.

All the listed antibiotics for MRSA really work and help quickly to stop the development of infection. However, very often, MRSA is complicated by other types of bacterial infections. In such cases, patients should be prescribed with drugs containing several antibacterial agents.

Advantage of antibacterial cocktail drugs is that their active ingredients have different mechanisms of action. Therefore, drugs for MRSA containing two antimicrobial agents have an extended range of antibacterial activity.

One of the most prescribed combination antibiotics for MRSA is Synercid. This injectable drug includes antibacterial agents Dalfopristin and Quinupristin.

It should be noted that injection therapy of MRSA is very effective, but is very expensive. Therefore, many patients have to use cheap oral antibiotics for MRSA treatment.

Some of the most effective oral drugs for MRSA are Bactrim, Cotrim, Septra, Sulfatrim, Sulmeprim (contain antibacterial agents Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole), as well as Zyvox oral tablets (contain antibacterial agent Linezolid).

Less effective oral antibiotics for MRSA treatment are Clindamycin (Cleocin, Calindamin, Clindamyk), Erythromycin (Erymax, ERYC, Eryped, Erythrolar).

Particular attention should be paid to oral antibacterials from the group of quinolones (such as, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Gemifloxacin). Drugs of this group have a bactericidal effect. Therefore, they can be administered to treat MRSA in patients with bacteremia.

If you want to buy antibiotics to treat MRSA at the lowest price, you can find cheap oral and IV antibacterials on online pharmacy. To purchase drugs for the treatment of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection (MRSA) online, a prescription is not required. Therefore, you can make your order in just a few minutes.

Essential oils for skin

Essential oils are multi-component, natural oils that contain organic substances useful for human health. Essential oils are made from medicinal plants that are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases.

More than 30 different types of essential oils with unique healing properties are used for aromatherapy and phytotherapy. Volatile oils are most often used for topical therapy of skin diseases, but can also be used for inhalation therapy of bronchitis, sore throat and cough.

To get just a few drops of healing oil, a huge number of plants is required. Therefore, price of essential oils for skin, made from medicinal plants is significantly higher than the price of dietary supplements made from the extracts of the same plants.

For phytotherapy and aromatherapy, oils made from one or several plants can be used. Medicinal properties and mechanism of action of essential oils for skin depend on the plants they are made from.

For example, essential oils for skin from clove, eucalyptus and turpentine have anti-inflammatory effect and can reduce musculoskeletal pain, back pain and joint pain in arthritis, strains, bruises and sprains.

Essential oils for reducing skin rash, skin tags, eczemas, fungal infections of the skin, herpes symptoms and dermatitis are made from medicinal plants Melaleuca alternifolia, Evening primrose and Cymbopogon martini.

Topical use of volatile oils for skin rash helps to reduce skin inflammation, relieve sunburn symptoms and accelerate the skin healing in case of cuts. In regular use of essential oils for skin care, skin elasticity can be increased and a healthy complexion is maintained.

Unlike to synthetic creams and ointments, essential oils for skin care do not cause allergic reactions. Therefore, they can be used to care for any skin type, including skin hypersensitive to allergens.

Essential oils for skin do not only provide anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. For instance, healing oils from Olibanum and Rosmarinus officinalis provide calming and relaxing effects. Therefore, they can be used to support the nervous system and improve mental health.

Some types of essential oils for skin (e.g., Salvia sclarea oil) help to reduce menopausal symptoms in women and maintain normal sexual function in men. Other essential oils for skin (e.g., Myrtus communis oil) help to improve sleep, as well as can be used for phytotherapy of insomnia.

The fact that organic essential oils can be useful for maintaining therapy of cancer diseases (including skin cancer) deserves a special attention. Essential oils for skin exert positive effect on the immune system and can help to improve physical, emotional and spiritual well-being of cancer patients.

It should be noted that qualitative essential oils for skin evaporate quickly and leave no greasy stains on clothing. Therefore, they can be applied to the skin at any time of the day, including immediately before leaving home.

Essential oils for skin are absolutely safe for the human body, so they are sold without a prescription. If you decide to buy essential oils for skin care, but do not know which oil to choose, please, ask your questions about the healing volatile oils by email.

Drug resistant bacteria

The term drug resistant bacteria is used in medical practice for characterizing the ability of microscopic organisms to resist high concentrations of various active substances in the body.

Drug resistant bacteria definition can also be understood as the preservation of the protozoa vital processes after antibiotics administration in therapeutic doses.

Antibacterial drugs penetrate well into the body tissues and have a selective effect on the bacterial population. Modern antibiotics interfere with the metabolism, stop the reproduction and kill bacteria without harming the cells, organs or tissues.

Although bacteria lack intelligence, they have their protective mechanisms. This is due to the unique ability of drug resistant bacteria to evolve. Pathogens have two types of drug resistance: acquired and natural (intrinsic).

  • Natural resistance of bacteria can result from the ability of drugs to penetrate in a bacterial cell, or intrinsic ability of the microorganism to synthesize enzymes that inactivate the antimicrobial agents.
  • Acquired drug bacterial resistance is associated with their rapid adaptation to environmental conditions. Bacteria are able to mutate rapidly, due to which new strains are formed. These are capable of remaining viable in high concentrations of active substances, which used to be hazardous for them earlier.

List of drug resistant bacteria increases every year. It is especially clearly observed in recent decades. Scientists explain this phenomenon by a significant increase in the number of people, using antibiotics.

For example, more and more importance is given to the increase in such drug resistant bacteria, as neisseria gonorrhoeae, staphylococci, pneumococci, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diseases, caused by such strains, are characterized by longer and more difficult treatment.

Ultimately, it has a great social value and economic damage. People spend more money to the medication, at this time the risks of the spread of new microorganisms strains in the human population increase. The consequences of these bacteria spread are hard to predict.

Efforts to combat resistant organisms should be a priority for global health. By the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in the world, the following separation on different scales is possible:

  • Global
  • Regional
  • Local

Some types of bacteria are more common and have the best conditions for growth and reproduction in warm countries. The frequency and types of antibiotics is different in various countries, so the statistics for drug resistant bacteria in the United States, India, Japan and Africa will also be different.

The World Health Organization has proposed the following measures for controlling the impending crisis in the treatment of many infectious diseases:

  • More careful supervision over the use of antimicrobial agents
  • Control over the optimum period of drugs use
  • Reducing the amount of antibiotics, used in livestock
  • Disease prevention and control
  • Support for innovation and new treatment methods

Despite the fact that anti-microbial agents are the primary treatment for many infections, they are used improperly, and usually excessively in the majority of countries in the world. This increases the drug resistant bacteria and treatment in hospitals or at home becomes difficult.

Australia and other countries around the world, specializing in animal husbandry, make significant efforts in legislative restrictions for antibiotics use in animals. The list includes such antibiotics, as cephalosporins, broad-spectrum penicillins, lincosamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides.

Since the number of drug resistant bacteria is increasing steadily, the disturbing fact is that no prototypes of new drugs appear lately. Over the past 30 years, only two new classes of antibiotics were discovered – cyclic lipopeptides and oxazolidinones.

Innovative strategies and new technologies are required to address the lack of a new generation of antibiotics. They must resist the emergence of bacteria, resistant to practically all known antibacterial agents.

Bactrim side effects

The antibiotic Bactrim is used to suppress vital functions of aerobic microorganisms. Therapeutic doses of Bactrim are used for suppressing the growth of such pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative protozoa, as escherichia coli, haemophilus influenzae, proteus vulgaris, shigella sonnei and streptococcus pneumoniae.

This review allows you learning more about common and rare Bactrim side effects. This drug contains a combination of two active substances – Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim, which increases the therapeutic effect. However, the presence of two active components increases the number of possible side effects.

Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim are metabolized in the body to more than 10 different metabolites. These substances are also classified as therapeutically active and, therefore, may cause side effects.

Bactrim, as well as most other antimicrobial agents, affects the microbial flora of gastrointestinal tract. Possible side effects in treatment with Bactrim tablets (especially in toddlers) are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and as a consequence, decrease in appetite.

Having studied the forums on Bactrim antibiotic, you can find confirmation of information about adverse reactions (e.g., rash pictures). A frequent side effect of Bactrim is various allergic skin reactions, which usually appear in the first days of medical treatment.

Bactrim can affect the cardiovascular system and reduce the number of platelets, leukocytes and neutrophils in the blood plasma. Blood tests are recommended for reducing the risk of Bactrim cardiovascular side effects, especially in elderly people.

Rare side effects in treatment with Bactrim may arise from neurological, genitourinary, metabolic, endocrine and respiratory systems. Bactrim tablets should be taken with caution, if a person has a disease, associated with the functioning of these systems.

How long do Bactrim side effects last?

Active substances Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim reach peak plasma levels within 1-4 hours after oral administration of the antibiotic. The half-life of active substances is up to 10 hours. If moderate or severe side effects of Bactrim manifest during these periods, you may need to adjust the dosage.

Dosing regimen may remain unchanged in light adverse reactions of Bactrim. Typically, such reactions cause no discomfort in patients and disappear on their own within a few days.

Medium duration of bacterial infections treatment with Bactrim varies within the interval of 5-14 days (depending on the pathogen). Side effects can rarely persist within 12 hours after the end of treatment.

If you buy Bactrim, you can be sure that it is a safe and an effective drug. Despite the large list of Bactrim side effects, an adequate dosing regimen allows minimizing their risks. It is recommended to consult a doctor before taking Bactrim with any other drugs,.

Antimicrobial resistance

One of the most pressing global health issues is the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial resistance contributes to the uncontrolled increase in the number of pathogenic microorganisms, which leads to higher levels of infectious diseases.

Antimicrobial resistance complicates the prevention and treatment of diseases, caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. More and more countries are beginning to focus on this issue, as it poses a threat not just to countries on the individual level, but to the whole world.

For this reason, the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted in May, 2015 at the 68 World Health Assembly.

One of the five strategic objectives of the plan is to strengthen the evidence base through global surveillance and researches in the field of antimicrobial resistance. According to statistics, the number of antibacterial drugs in recent years has increased, along with which antimicrobial resistance has also shown a considerable growth.

A number of factors contributes to the growth of drug resistance level. As pointed out by the WHO in 10 facts on antimicrobial resistance, the use of sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics in animal and poultry feed contributes to antibiotic resistance increase.

The other factors, contributing to antimicrobial resistance also include weak surveillance systems, poor infection control and prevention. Great concern with the issue of drug resistance development served as the basis for the global antimicrobial resistance researches, carried out by the WHO in collaboration with member states.

In 2014, the WHO presented a paper “Antimicrobial resistance: Global report on surveillance in 2014”, which identified the key areas of the fight against antimicrobial resistance. The main attention was paid to the antibacterial resistance in the treatment of such diseases, as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV.

It should be noted that modern medicine distinguishes two types of antimicrobial resistance:

  • acquired
  •  natural (intrinsic)

The appearance of acquired resistance in a microorganism is not always associated with the reduction in clinical efficacy of antibacterial drugs. Such antimicrobial resistance develops under the influence of various environmental factors. As a result of this influence, the microbe acquires new properties or loses its old qualities.

The drug resistance often develops as a result of the microbial strains evolution and misuse of antimicrobial drugs. The evolution of resistant strains is considered to be a natural phenomenon that occurs in faulty reproduction or mutations of microbes.

Reasons for the development of antimicrobial resistance are diverse, the most important being irrational and misguided use of antibiotic drugs, among which are:

  • wrong drug choice
  •  unjustified prescription of antibiotics
  • wrong choice of dosage regimen
  • unreasonably long use

Natural (intrinsic) antimicrobial resistance is characterized by the inaccessibility of antimicrobial agent for affecting the target, due to the enzymatic activation or the primary low permeability. It often happens that the microorganism totally lacks the target for the effect of the antimicrobial drugs.

Researches have shown that antibiotics are clinically ineffective in the presence of the natural resistance in microorganisms.

The mechanism of antimicrobial resistance is often based on the modification of the antibiotic action target, antibiotic excretion from microbial cells, formation of metabolic shunt, antibiotic inactivation, violation of permeability in microbial cells outer structure.

It should be noted that various microorganisms are characterized by their mechanisms of resistance development. Researchers recommend using antibiotics with a specific range of action after determining sensitivity to them for reducing antimicrobial resistance in humans.

Patients should strictly comply with the recommended dosage and treatment duration. Rotation of antimicrobial drugs is also recommended to reduce the risk of drug resistance.

Recent researches have shown that the rotation of antimicrobials (e.g. using antibiotics with different mechanisms of action) reduces the incidence of infections.

To prevent antimicrobial resistance, it is necessary to adhere to the following principles:

  • use antibiotics with a narrow spectrum of action
  • use the parenteral route of antimicrobials administration
  • minimize local administration of antimicrobials
  • carry out therapy with the maximum doses until the infection is completely overcome
  • limit the use of drugs, intended for humans, in the food industry and the veterinary
  • periodically assess the type of pathogen and resistance of microbial strains for the purpose of effective antimicrobials selection.

Allergic reaction to antibiotics

Of all the drugs, namely antibiotics are often capable of causing allergic reaction. It should be noted that allergic reaction to antibiotics is very common among patients of any age group.

According to scientists, allergic reaction to antibiotics may develop due to the following factors:

  • age and sex of the patient
  • constitutional peculiarities
  • genetic predisposition
  • presence of preexisting allergic reactions
  • frequent repeated courses of the same drug
  • prolonged parenteral administration of antibiotics in high doses

It is believed that the risk of allergic reaction to antibiotics is several times higher in children, whose parents suffer from allergy to drugs. Generally, allergies in children and elder are milder than in adults.

Allergies in infants are frequently characterized by such symptoms, as skin rash, diarrhea, fever and abdominal discomfort. Many parents do not know what to do, when they notice that their child has these symptoms.

The first thing to do in an allergic reaction to antibiotics in children is to stop taking the drug. When symptoms are clearly pronounced, the baby may be given antihistamines or enterosorbents. Then parents should contact a medical institution, where the child will receive quality care.

It should be noted that the allergic reaction to antibiotics in adults, and especially in pregnant women, can occur with serious complications. The symptoms of allergies manifest usually within the first 24 hours in the form of itching, Quincke’s oedema, hypotension, arrhythmia, rash, muscle pain.

In such symptoms, patient should stop using the antibiotic, take an antihistamine and seek medical advice. Treatment duration of allergic reaction to antibiotics will depend on the severity of allergy symptoms.

Mild forms of skin rash can be treated with antihistamines or corticosteroid ointments in combination with sedatives. Patients are recommended to use inhalers for controlling such symptoms, as cough, shortness of breath and wheezing.

Three types of allergic reactions to antibiotics are distinguished by the time of their development:

  • immediate (manifested within 1 hour)
  • accelerated (manifested within 72 hours)
  • late-onset (manifesting after 7 days, and even after 10 days)

It must be said that sometimes allergic reaction to antibiotics can last for a long time and its treatment requires some time. As a rule, the duration of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of the patient and the dose of the antibiotic administered.

Allergic reaction to antibiotics may be unpredictable. Therefore, they should be used with caution. Fortunately, today you can find an appropriate replacement for any antibiotic, to which the patient has an allergic reaction. And then the treatment with antibiotic will be effective and safe.