Male reproductive organ is composed of the erectile tissue and contains the urethra. Another important element of the sex organ is the deep artery of the penis, which delivers blood to the erectile tissue.
The urethra consists of smooth muscles and essentially is a narrow tube. The main function of the urethra is the bladder emptying and the transfer of male germ cells outside during the ejaculation. The urinary tract in the female body does not have any direct reproductive functions.
Switching between the two functions of the male urethra goes automatically. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases, an erection occurs and the ejaculation takes place.
The main task that the erectile tissue performs is to ensure the erection process in the male sexual organ. This process enables the transfer of the genetic material from the male body into the female egg.
The male sex organ has three expandable erectile tissues of two different types. They are similar in function and structure, yet they do have some important differences. For example, one of them surrounds the urethra.
- Erectile tissue that contains the urethra is called the corpus spongiosum.
- Erectile tissue also forms two tubular structures, which are called corpora cavernosa.
Erectile tissue forms cylindrical bodies, which are located along the reproductive organ. The two corpora cavernosa are located on the sides and at the top of the penis. Corpus spongiosum is located below and between the corpora cavernosa.
The erectile tissue is composed of many small and interconnected cavities. In certain circumstances, such as in response to sexual stimulation, the erectile tissue cavities are engorged with blood.
Due to the sexual arousal and the increased blood flow, the primary sex organ increases in size, and becomes firm and erect. Man has the possibility to start and complete a sexual intercourse.
It should be noted that the erectile tissue contains major part of the blood in erection period. Urethra, skin, arteries, and other parts of the male reproductive organ are elastic and easily grow in size.
Achieving an erection that is sufficient for a having a sexual intercourse is the only basic function of corpora cavernosa. Therefore, most of blood (approximately 90%) is stored in the two cylindrical bodies.
Corpus spongiosum performs several functions. This tissue also accumulates blood cells, yet in smaller quantities, compared to the corpora cavernosa. Besides achieving an erection, another function of this cylindrical body is to prevent the compression of the urethra during an intercourse.
The tubular bodies contain blood throughout the entire sexual activity period. When the sexual act is completed, male body releases substances that help reduce the erectile process.
Reverse flow of blood from the cylindrical bodies is carried out via the venous plexus. It should be noted that the venous plexus are compressed during the sexual arousal and the increase of the tubular body size.
This delays the outflow of the blood from the erectile tissue. The urethra passes the male sex cells, immediately after which the process of blood flow starts.
Normal functioning of the tubular bodies has a direct impact on the sexual life of men. Poor blood flow, increased blood outflow from the corpus cavernosum or nerve tissue damages can cause sexual dysfunction.
Sexual function often worsens in older men. Low levels of physical activity, cardiovascular disease, smoking, and high intake of fatty foods increase the risk of sexual dysfunction.
Erectile dysfunction is not a severe disease, yet it can significantly worsen the mental condition of men. Approximately 20% of US men aged 20 and more have regular problems with erection. More than half of men over the age of 40 suffer from erectile dysfunction.
The discovery of the PDE-5 inhibitors became a true revolution in the issue of the erectile dysfunction treatment. In 1998, Sildenafil (Viagra) hit the market. In subsequent years, Vardenafil, Tadalafil and Avanafil went on sale.
Corpora cavernosa and the erectile tissue that contains the urethra quickly respond to the appearance the PDE-5 inhibitors in the blood. The erection occurs within 30-60 minutes after the oral administration of PDE-5 inhibitors.
Sildenafil, Vardenafil, Tadalafil and Avanafil have the same mechanism of action. After the ingestion of the drug, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) accumulates in the erectile tissue. After the sexual excitement, blood flow increases and an erection can follow.
The duration of the PDE-5 inhibitors action differs significantly. Sildenafil can cause an erection within about 5 hours after administration. Tadalafil works for approximately 36 hours.
All PDE5 inhibitors are highly effective drugs. They have a good safety profile and rarely cause any side effects. Therefore, these drugs have found their wide application in the treatment of the erectile dysfunction.
If the erectile tissue that contains the urethra is not adequately responding to one of the drugs for the erectile dysfunction treatment, man can be recommended another medication. The availability of several PDE-5 inhibitors allows choosing the one that best suits each individual patient.
Millions of PDE5 inhibitors doses are taken every year. Thanks to these drugs, millions of men regained sexual confidence and again became sexually active.