Category Archives: Blood Pressure

What is normal blood pressure

What is normal blood pressure

Arterial blood pressure is referred as the pressure of blood, exerted on the walls of blood vessels. When heart contracts it pushes the blood, increasing the blood pressure. After that the heart relaxes for a while, getting filled with blood, thereby reducing the blood pressure in arteries. This process goes on throughout the whole life of a human.

Two values are used to measure the blood pressure. The first value stands for a systolic blood pressure, which defines the heart contraction. The second value stands for diastolic blood pressure, which is fixed at the moment of heart relaxation. These two parameters define the levels of blood pressure.

What determines the level of blood pressure?

* total amount of blood in the body;
* density of blood, concentration of hormones and other regulating components in it;
* the blood vessels tone in the central and peripheral nervous system;
* strength of the heart, pushing out the blood into the arteries;
* elasticity of the blood vessels that resist the blood flow;
* physical activity of a person;
* psychoemotional state of a person.

Because blood pressure depends on many factors, its levels changes all the time. For instance, stress and physical activity make the blood pressure to increase, while if person is resting the blood pressure goes down. Thus even healthy person with normal blood pressure may have high blood pressure for a while.

Normal blood pressure

Normal blood pressure can change slightly throughout a day. The acceptable difference between the blood pressure values on the right and left arm is 5 mmHg maximum. Perfect blood pressure is considered 120 / 80 mmHg. Still normal blood pressure index may vary depending on the age, gender and chronic diseases of a person.

Blood pressure chart for age

* The age of 1 year: normal blood pressure is 96 over 66 mmHg;
* Age 10 years: normal blood pressure is 103 over 69 mmHg;
* Age 20 to 30 years: normal blood pressure is 124 over 77 mmHg;
* Age 40 years: normal blood pressure index is 129 over 81 mmHg;
* Age 50 years: normal blood pressure is 135 over 83 mmHg;
* At the age of 60 and older, normal blood pressure ranges between 143 and 145 over 85 and 78 mmHg.

While in teenagers the minimum norm of the blood pressure is 100 over 70 mmHg, the same index in elderly people may indicate the failure of cardiovascular system.

When determining the normal blood pressure, it is also important to consider general health. If patient feels no discomfort, then probably low blood pressure is his normal state.

Why do we need blood pressure control?

Chronic increase of the blood pressure is one of the risk factors for health. Every time when the blood pressure goes up by 10 mmHg it increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 30%. People with high blood pressure often suffer from strokes, coronary artery disease, lesion of the blood vessels of extremities and renal insufficiency. Thus one must pay attention on the following symptoms of high blood pressure: headache, fatigue, noise in ears, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea and chest pain.

Regular blood pressure control is a must for elderly people, as well as those who have any of the cardiovascular diseases.

Medication to cure high blood pressure

There are several types of medications for the treatment of high blood pressure:

• Calcium channel blockers
• Vasodilators
• Combination medicines
• ACE inhibitors
• Renin inhibitors
• Angiotension II antagonists
• Diuretics (sometimes called “water pills”)
• Beta blockers
• Peripherally acting alpha-adrenergic blockers
• Centrally-acting alpha adrenergics

All these drugs belong to different pharmacological groups and have different mechanism of action. For instance, ACE inhibitors (Captopril, Lotensin, Prinivil and Vasotec) provide the dilation of peripheral blood vessels. This achieves the decrease of blood pressure and load on the heart, improvement of the pulmonary circulation and circulation in kidneys, as well as increase of the efficiency of breathing. ACE inhibitors are prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. However, they may cause such side effects as insomnia, cough and headache.

Beta blockers (Lopressor, Inderal, Trandate, Corgard) provide hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and antianginal effect. They can also reduce the frequency of heart contractions and cardiac output, reducing the oxygen need of myocardium. Beta blockers may cause side effects: indigestion and nausea.

Calcium Channel blockers (Isoptin, Cardizem, Procardia, Plendil) reduce the tone of peripheral blood vessels. Also they provide coronary vasodilation and improve the circulation in the heart muscle. Calcium channel blockers act by reducing the arterial blood pressure and frequency of heart rate. They may provoke side effects: ankle swelling, feeling of drowsiness.

Combination medicines for the treatment of high blood pressure contain two or even three active substances. Such drugs are: Diovan HCT (hydrochlorothiazide and valsartan), Vaseretic (enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide) and Tarka (verapamil and trandolapril).

Active substances of Combination medicines belong to different pharmaceutical groups. In particular, Diovan HCT it is vasodilator + Angiotension II antagonist; Vaseretic is vasodilator + ACE inhibitor; Tarka is Calcium channel blocker + ACE inhibitor. The combination of substances from two different pharmacological groups allows to get optimal clinical response.

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Foods that lower blood pressure

Blood pressure literally means the pressure of blood on the walls of the blood vessels. Depending on the situation, arterial blood pressure may increase or decrease throughout a day. But when the blood pressure remains high during long period of time, it leads to hypertension. Hypertension is a chronic disease, characterized by constantly high blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg and higher). At the initial stages of hypertension, the blood pressure may increase periodically.

High blood pressure violates the work of heart and provokes atherosclerosis, which is quite dangerous for the body. Thus high blood pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The risk factors of high blood pressure, are: genetic predisposition; age over 55 years for men and over 65 years for women. In addition, there are also some risk factors that can be taken under control, such as: high cholesterol, smoking; excess weight, physical activity and diabetes.

Lifestyle plays an important role to lower blood pressure. If person with high blood pressure is capable to control his lifestyle, then at early stage of the disease he might lower blood pressure without using any medications or by reducing the use of drugs.

To lower blood pressure, one needs to change the nutrition first of all, which also helps to lose weight. Because you know that excess weight violates all body functions, plus it increases the blood pressure. So in order to lower blood pressure, you need more than just to change the diet. For high blood pressure it is recommended to keep a balanced diet, involving the whole complex of vitamins and minerals. Thus it is recommended to eat only healthy foods that might help to lower blood pressure, as well as normalize the blood circulation, keeping cerebral vessels in tone.

To lower blood pressure it is recommended to limit foods high in fat and cholesterol. One should eat more fruit and vegetables, wholegrain products, fat-free dairy products, nuts and beans. It is also necessary to set dietary approaches to stop hypertension, also known as DASH diet (tested diet to lower blood pressure in people with such disease as hypertension). DASH diet consists of solid diet, but not separate diet components.

The distinguishing feature of DASH diet is combination of products high in calcium, potassium, magnesium and limited consumption of sodium. For example, combination of fruit and vegetables with diary products enriches the body with calcium, potassium and magnesium. Thus larger amount of products with calcium, potassium and magnesium provides strong effect, helping to normalize the blood pressure. To increase calcium level, one should eat: diary products; fish; greens; nuts and beans. To restore magnesium level and normalize the blood pressure, one should use fat-free meat; nuts and seeds; beans; greens and dairy.

To reduce sodium level that causes high blood pressure, one should consume fruit and vegetables; wholegrain products; dairy products high in potassium and beans. The thing is that products high in potassium and magnesium allow to balance the amount of sodium inside the cells, which normalizes the blood pressure.

It is recommended to start DASH diet (in particular limited diet) gradually. First of all, one should minimize the amount of consumed fats. For instance, meat has to be just a small part of the whole daily diet. It is better to replace sweets and cakes with fruit. One should take dairy and wholegrain foods three times a day.

Foods that lower blood pressure:

* Fat-free dairy products: milk, cheese, sour cream, yogurt enrich the body with calcium and protein.
* Wholegrain products: bran bread, wholegrain bread, porridge and boiled rice – fiber and energy.
* Meat and fish: only fat-free and boiled meat as well as fish fillets are recommended. In rare cases you can eat fried foods with small amount of oil.
* Vegetables: broccoli, potato, spinach, green peas, carrots and cabbage.
* Fruit bring you more magnesium, potassium, vitamins and minerals. You can take any fruits in any amount.
* Nuts rich in fat and proteins. Being on diet, your body should still get fats. Because nuts contain vegetable fats, they are better for your body.
* Compotes, herbal teas, fresh juices have many useful features, so they are a good alternative to soda drinks.

Studies have shown that DASH diet is able to lower blood pressure within 14 days. Moreover, DASH diet allows to slow down and (or) prevent cardiovascular diseases; type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. Therefore it is recommended to comply with DASH diet not only to lower blood pressure, but also to prevent cardiovascular disorders.

If foods that lower blood pressure do not give you antihypertensive effect, maybe you need to take antihypertensive therapy. But if you already have the prescription on drugs that lower blood pressure, only it is not valid anymore, you can buy antihypertensive drugs online without prescription by ordering the shipping from any country of the world.

Symptoms of high blood pressure

Symptoms of high blood pressure

Hypertension is one of the common diseases of cardiovascular system. Symptoms of hypertension are observed approximately in 30% of adult population. The prevalence of hypertension is up to 50-65% in people over 65 years.

Hypertension is a chronic disease, its main symptom is increased blood pressure. Herewith, high blood pressure is not a symptom of diseases of other organs and systems. Blood pressure is one of the most important indicators, characterizing the circulatory system work. High blood pressure indicates to the disorder of central regulation of vascular tone and heart function.

High blood pressure is dangerous because it may not accompanied by symptoms and detected by chance when measuring blood pressure. In some cases symptoms of high blood pressure include: headache, dizziness, increased fatigue, tinnitus, sleep disorder.

Symptoms of high blood pressure may appear from time to time and for a long time person may not know that he has high blood pressure. Therefore, people often turn to professionals only in severe forms of high blood pressure. In severe form of high blood pressure, main symptoms are also include: chest pain; visual deterioration; pain in the heart; tachycardia, swelling of the limbs and face.

It is recommended to see a doctor in the first symptoms of high blood pressure. Because high blood pressure can cause the development of such complications, as: heart failure; stroke; heart attack; visual impairment; kidney failure. Thus, it will be difficult to treat high blood pressure.

For most people, etiology of high blood pressure symptoms is still unknown. When reasons of high blood pressure cannot be determined, primary hypertension is diagnosed. Risk factors of primary hypertension are considered to be: genetic predisposition to high blood pressure; stress; excess body weight, sedentary lifestyle; alcohol abuse; tobacco smoking; age.

When reason of high blood pressure becomes dysfunction of nervous or endocrine systems; kidney disease, secondary hypertension is diagnosed. Secondary hypertension also includes symptoms of high blood pressure, occurring during pregnancy and when using some medicines.

It should be noted that regardless of high blood pressure reasons, they cause discomfort to a person and violate his working capacity. Therefore, in the first symptoms of high blood pressure, it should be measured. To assess blood pressure level, it should be measured on both hands at least twice at interval of not less than one minute.

Blood pressure is considered high if it is above 140/90 mm Hg. Depending on blood pressure level, there are three degrees of hypertension. In the first hypertension degree, blood pressure increases from 140/90 mm Hg up to 160/100 mm Hg. In the second degree of hypertension, indicators of blood pressure are equal to 160/100 mm Hg – 180/110 mm Hg. In the third degree of hypertension, blood pressure exceeds 180/110 mm Hg.

Main purpose of hypertension therapy is a reduction of blood pressure. Hypertension therapy is also aimed at the decrease of risk factors, contributing to high blood pressure, slowdown the symptoms progression of high blood pressure and treatment of related diseases.

Hypertension treatment is directed at lowering of blood pressure to less than 140/90 mmHg. If the therapy is well-tolerated and does not cause complications, it is advisable to reduce blood pressure to a lower level. It should be noted that it is difficult to achieve blood pressure level lower than 140/90 mm Hg in elderly patients and in patients with related diseases (cardiovascular system, diabetes) in antihypertensive therapy.

When choosing antihypertensive drug, it is recommended to assess therapy efficiency, possible side effects and advantages of antihypertensive drug in certain clinical situations. When prescribing antihypertensive drug, some factors are recommended to take into account: the presence of risk factors; target organs damage; related diseases; patient’s clinical state; drug interactions.

In modern clinical practice for reduction of high blood pressure symptoms five classes of antihypertensive drugs are used:

* angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Captopril; Lisinopril; Fosinopril);
* AT1 receptor blockers (Eprosartan; Valsartan; Losartan);
* calcium antagonists (Verapamil, Diltiazem, Amlodipine);
* beta-blockers (Propranolol, Metoprolol, Carvedilol);
* diuretics (Hydrochlorothiazide; Indapamide; Chlorthalidone).

Combination therapy with alpha-blockers, imidazoline receptor agonists and direct renin inhibitors are prescribed in severe cases of hypertension.

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How should you consider this disease?

Even if you feel good, and your hypertension does not complicate your life so far, you have to take into account high pressure. Now this disease is not even discussed any more. Hypertension is dangerous. It is defined that it leads to heart attacks and strokes. Thence, if you refuse from hypertension treatment, you agree with shortening of your life.

In 78 of 100 cases of heart attack and in 76 of 100 cases of stroke, patient examinations revealed high blood pressure. And, surely, most of them did not take any steps to lower pressure.

Remember that hypertension treatment refusal reduces your life. It is not true that high pressure should be lowered with

What is the normal pressure?

Blood pressure is unstable and depends on many factors. Blood pressure during sleep is lowering. And on the contrary, it is increased in physical activities and stresses. To stabilize blood pressure, you need have a rest and calm down.

If you are healthy, your organism is capable to control blood pressure. Control body systems provide the full blood flow without increasing if you change your position from sitting or lying. But if these systems fail to control blood pressure, it is getting to be increased. At this moment only you and your doctor can provide the effective assistance.

The arterial pressure of 120/80 millimeters of mercury is considered to be normal (upper limit is 140/90).

Why you suffer from high pressure and how long it will continue?

Nowadays, the answer to this question has not been found. Hypertension may affect anyone, no matter sex, weight and skin color. However, the emotional people are believed to be under higher risk of hypertension development. Besides some medications (oral contraceptives, for example) may increase blood pressure. Moreover, the older you are getting, the higher your pressure.

However, all mentioned reasons are only a little part of numerous other reasons explaining worsening your health. Actually, the factors leading to hypertensions are numerous, and all of them have not been studied yet. The reason of high pressure can be defined very seldom, and it is difficult to eliminate it and forget about hypertension.

If the doctor set a diagnosis “hypertension”, more likely it is right. This diagnosis is set on the basis of regular measuring of your blood pressure. If you always have high pressure, you definitely have hypertension. Hypertension is an incurable disease. You have to fight against it to avoid any complications, but you should accept that you will always be with it.

What is hypertension?

The word “hypertension” means regular increase in arterial pressure. Blood pressure is increased when arteries and arterioles are narrowed. Arteries are like water channels feeding the earth and connecting the seas. But in a human body they are filled with the blood circulating between the heart and other bodies. Vasoconstriction may be observed because of regular spasms. The vessels remain narrowed due to thickenings of arterial walls.

The heart trying to pass the blocked sites and deliver the blood to organs increases an amount of the blood to push it through the vessels. These conditions are considered to be the reason of the development of hypertension: blood flow under high pressure affecting the vessel walls.

Sometimes, in one of ten cases, high blood pressure may be caused by disorder of any organ. This hypertension is named secondary or symptomatic. However, in most cases hypertension has primary character and called essential hypertension. Though the reasons of primary hypertension have not been thoroughly studied, it is evident that untreated high pressure is believed to be a serious threat to human health and life. The most common complications of hypertension are kidneys disease, and brain and heart disorders.

Nowadays the doctors apply reliable and effective methods to treat high pressure and avoid any complications. The main thing is your examination and following the doctor’s recommendations.

Important!

Every fifth adult has high arterial pressure (above 120/80). But only half of them know about it. Half of them treat this disease properly. The most of people believe that if they do not feel any disturbance due to high pressure, they do not need the treatment. However, treatment refusal is dangerous, you never know when it let you down!

Only half of the patients taking prescribed drugs follow the doctor’s recommendations. The patients discontinue drug taking when see the first symptoms of improvement. It may lead to relapse. Some patients adjust drug dosage, this is very dangerous. If you have hypertension, you should study some moments and live with it.

High blood pressure

High arterial pressure (hypertension) is believed to be one of the most common diseases. Almost every tenth adult suffers from high blood pressure. Hypertension may not be observed for a long time, but its destructive action will affect you anyway. High blood pressure will be attacking your cardiovascular system till stenocardia or heart attack, blindness or other disorders are experienced.

Now there are many medications effectively lowering high blood pressure and capable to keep it normal. Drug treatment will help you to live a normal life, but with some restrictions.

Below we will talk about hypertension and high blood pressure in details. But we do not want you to set diagnoses basing on the provided material. Diagnosis can be determined only by the qualified doctor. Our task is to inform you on such disease as hypertension, because awareness of the disease is the first step in the right direction. The below information is provided only for informative and educational purpose.

Heart attack

What to do if your heart hurts? It is good if it happens at home or at public place, with other people around and they can help. But, unfortunately, circumstances are often unfavorable. How to help yourself if none is nearby, and any medications or phone are just not available?

Alas, today even young people of 25-30 age group are under the risk of heart attack, especially in big cities: life is full of stress, plus smoking, alcohol, all these factors worsen heart state.

Let’s assume that the conflict situation happen with you at work. Then you drive a car and suddenly feel the chest pain. To the nearest hospital it is 5km, and it is unlikely to reach over there in such state … It is better to stop immediately: accidents happen often because of heart attack with a driver.

Let’s consider another case. You are walking in the forest or in the village. None is nearby, and surely, any medications are available. However, even if you do not see anyone, call someone, probably somebody nevertheless will hear you.

Let’s assume that you are alone at home. You will not be able to leave your apartment and to call your neighbor if you fail to reach drugs. Neighbors hardly will hear you even if you shout through a window. Even, having called emergency you will have to wait it at least twenty minutes, and in the city it may take about one hour. But anyway you are recommended to call emergency. At heart attack an individual quickly weakens because of heart-work disorders. There are only 10 seconds before fainting. In these situations an urgent artificial respiration is recommended. But, even if you can do it, you need another person’s help for this procedure. But he may feel panic. This may lead to fatal outcome despite a chance to save own life!

So, first aid to yourself is to start coughing! Before every coughing, take a deep breath. The cough should be deep, chest, and expectorant like in pulmonary diseases. Frequency of “breath-cough” is about every 2 seconds. Proceed doing it till getting assistance or your heart rate is normal.

How the cough works? The matter is that deep breaths provide required oxygen to the lungs, and cough suppresses a cardiac muscle and stimulates the blood to circulate better. It helps the heart to restore a normal heart rhythm.

But even if the heart rhythm was restored and you feel better, do not neglect the problem. Immediately take a drug and call the doctor, you are recommended to make a cardiogram. Probably, even hospitalization will be required for you to get necessary treatment.

However, the above-mentioned cardiopulmonary resuscitation is extreme. If you value your life and health, get the required medications around just in case.

1. Keep heart medications even if you are not a heart sufferer. By the way, an individual suffered from impaired cardial function with Nitroglycerine or Valocordin appears at an advantage, than the healthy one without heart drugs. Keep the rule: heart drugs should be available to your hands! Keep them in bedside tables and in your pockets. If you do not need them, they can be useful to someone else.

2. The phone always should be available, whatever stationary or mobile. Surely, it is not the fact that in case of sudden worsening of health state it will help you, but nevertheless you can call emergency. 3. In case of the severe stress try to breathe deeper (even if you do not observe any heart attack symptoms). If possible do not drive. Take sedative drugs.

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