Category Archives: Antibiotics

Antibiotic resistance public health

What Is Public Health?

Public health is the science of improving health, preventing diseases, and prolonging life. It promotes ideas of how to remain healthy and happy through organized events, for instance, promoting breastfeeding, hand washing, the need to use vaccinations, distributing condoms, preventing suicides, etc.

Its main goal is to be aware of threats to human health based on data analysis and warn people about them, also giving ideas how they to improve the overall well-being. The population can be small as a several people to several continents. According to WHO, health is a state of social, mental, and physical well-being, and not just absence of infirmity or disease.

Public health needs to use help of health professionals and workers, such as physicians, psychologists, dentists, epidemiologists, microbiologists, etc. Public health promotes open and free information, which allows people to be aware of various threats and how they can deal with them, and that is why public health is so important.

What Is Antibiotic Resistance?

Humans have been living on Earth for about 200,000 years ago, and only for the last seventy years, we have been using synthetic antibiotics for the treatment of various bacterial diseases. The development of the first antibacterial agent called penicillin was a breakthrough for humanity. For many years, people were able to easily treat infections from which during previous thousands of years people would just die. Unfortunately, developing a potent drug is not enough because bacteria become able to resist the effects of medications. One of the reasons for that is the massive use of antibacterial agents.

Bacteria are able to reproduce, maintain internal conditions, and do other actions typical for all living things, including adapting to the changes in the environment. When bacteria experience the effects of antibiotics, they may use different mechanisms to survive, which is called antibiotic resistance. The major problem is that bacteria are able to share their successful experience with others through plasmids.

When antibiotic resistance occurs, other antibiotics should be used to treat bacterial infections, but, unfortunately, sometimes none of them works. There have been many cases of people dying from antibiotic resistance. It is important to develop new medications, and we should do it quicker than bacteria become resistant.

According to the CDC, at least two million people are infected with bacteria that resistant to antimicrobials agents in the USA annually and about 23,000 of them die. Unfortunately, according to forecasts, this number will grow year by year, unless people manage to prevent the occurrence of bacterial resistance and start developing potent drugs. In several years, we may face millions of people’s death because of antibiotic resistance. Public health has to be directed on warning people about the threat and letting them know how it is possible to help.

How Public Health Can Help Prevent Antibiotic Resistance

Although antibiotic resistance may occur even if you use the right medication for the treatment of certain bacterial infections, it is mostly has become such a major problem because of massive use of antibiotics, including cases when they should not have been really used.

Antibiotics really should not be used as they are used today, meaning that the use of antibacterial agents should be based on special tests, confirming the presence of a bacterial infection and informing about the type of bacteria causing it. Antibiotics are often prescribed based on “guessing” or “just in case” principle. This happens because people are not aware of the problem and it is easier and time-consuming to use antibiotics than undergo special tests.

The role of public health is to deliver to all people the information about the problem, and about the actions that they can do in order to prevent it. Public health should inform people that they should not use antibiotics for the treatment of viral infections. People should also know that it is also important to prevent the occurrence of bacterial infections by washing hands, using condoms, avoiding using things of other people, etc.

Basically, public health should deliver the needed information, so each person could be aware of what is happening, why it is dangerous, and how to prevent it.

What Can Medical Professionals Do in Order to Prevent Antibiotic Resistance?

Although the role of public health is really important, many people take their warnings as not necessary and do not pay much attention to them. Medical professionals are those who are dealing with people who got sick. They should avoid prescribing antibiotics if it is not necessary. Also, it is important to insist on taking specials test if the type of bacteria causing an infection is uncertain.

Healthcare providers should in details explain the need to follow all of their recommendations. Often, people do not take antibacterials for the needed time. Once they feel some relief, they think that the infection has been fought, and there is no need to continue using antibiotics. This is a big mistake, because in reality bacteria are not killed, and they will keep causing infections, and, moreover, they will become resistant to the antibiotic that has been used to treat them before.

Prophylaxis is one of the reasons why antibiotic are used. Almost all surgeries are accompanied by the use of antibacterial agents to prevent complications. As studies have shown, such an approach is not always necessary, and antibiotics for prophylaxis should be used only for people in a high-risk group.

All in all, public health can do a lot of useful things for preventing antibiotic resistance, and one of them is informing as many people as possible about the threat.

Antibiotic resistance evolution

How Antibiotic Resistance Evolves and Why This Happens

About Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance means the ability of bacteria to withstand the effects of antibacterials (antibiotics). Infections caused by bacteria can be life-threatening, and even simple ones can only be treated with the use of antibacterials. Today, the production of antibiotics is massive, and it helps people from all over the world feel safer. These drugs are used for the treatment of bacterial infections in the urinary tract, strep throat, some pneumonia, and many others. Unfortunately, bacteria may become resistant to medications, which makes it impossible to use them for the treatment of even minor infections.

Bacteria are highly adapting species to the changing in the environment and attacks against them, using different mechanisms. They are constantly evolving, forcing people to develop new potent antibiotics and find other ways to be one step ahead.

Discovery of Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance evolution is closely tied with the invention and uses of antibiotics. Bacteria were discovered in the late 19th century, which initiated the search for potent medications able to fight infections caused by them.

The first valuable breakthrough happened in 1928 when penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming, which became the inception of a new era in medicine.  Later, this discovery earned the inventor the Nobel Prize. After several years of the antibiotic use, Fleming warned people about antibiotic resistance. Since this time, many other antibiotics have been discovered, which saved a countless number of lives.

In 1937, sulfonamides were introduced, and soon people noticed the development of antibiotic resistance. Resistance to sulfonamide was reported in the late 1930s, and the same mechanisms of resistance work today. According to the recent database lists, there are over 20,000 potential resistance genes of about 400 types.

How Antibiotic Resistance Evolves

Antibiotic resistance evolution is a natural process occurred through mutation, but it can also be caused by an evolutionary stress. Bacteria are able to transfer the genetic information between individuals thanks to plasmid exchange. This means that once antibiotic resistance occurs, it becomes available to other strains. Bacterium with several resistance genes is called a superbug.

Several studies have proven that antibiotic resistance evolves due to the extensive use of antibacterials. That is why it is so important to eliminate the overuse of these medications.

According to researchers, LexA, the bacterial protein, may be important for creating mutants. Today, one of the major resistant pathogens is Staphylococcus aureus.

Researchers have managed to create a large culturing device that is able to track the evolution of bacteria and the way they mutate under the effects of antibiotics. It was surprising for the scientists to discover that not the fittest mutants were able to withstand the effects of higher antibiotic concentrations, but the bacteria “behind” them.

The results of the research have provided important information about the evolutionary mechanisms and patterns, which make bacteria resistant to drugs.

Michael Baym and colleagues and his team have created a MEGA plate, a model allowing observing the process of mutating bacteria. It has been revealed that descendants of mutants tend to migrate to new territories.

Initially, the low-resistance mutants occur, then moderately resistant species developed, and, finally, those that are highly resistant to antibiotics appear. It takes about 11 days for mutants to become resistant.

How to Prevent Antibiotic Resistance

In order to eliminate the threat of being unable to treat bacterial infections, the world’s leaders have to cooperate in term of financing and supporting by other ways the research on the topic, the development of new drugs, and increasing people’s awareness about the problems.

We can do simple actions in order to help in solving this problem, including the following:

  • Avoid using antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by viruses, including common cold, influenza, a sore throat, or a runny nose;
  • Strictly follow recommendations of a healthcare provider regarding the use of antibacterials;
  • Do not use antibiotics that were not prescribed for you, and do not share your medications with other people.

What is penicillin

Medicine has known what is penicillin since the beginning of the XX century. This antibiotic was derived by British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming for the first time, in 1928. Later, in 1957, a full synthesis of this substance was made from Penicillium and Cephalosporium molds.

Penicillin is used for treating bacterial infections, such as syphilis, diphtheria, actinomycosis, anthrax, leptospirosis. These diseases are caused by different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: Clostridium, Escherichia coli, gonococcus, salmonella, and many others. Medics did not have any effective drug for treatment of these diseases till the XX century.

Since penicillin was discovered, many other types of antimicrobial drugs related to the penicillin group were found and synthesized included.

What is penicillin group?

Medications in the penicillin group are drugs derived from fungi. Medications of the penicillin group are classified by their synthesis method to natural and semisynthetic.

The natural antibiotics of this group include benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin, made of green mold colonies. Substances derived by compound of natural antibiotics with some chemical elements are related to semisynthetic penicillins.

What is penicillin G?

An antibacterial substance, first discovered by Fleming, became known as penicillin G (alternative name: benzylpenicillin). A pharmacological property of the natural antibiotic is the broken synthesis of the bacteria cell wall, followed by broken structure, thus bacteria are destroyed.

One of penicillin G features is that it can be used only intramuscularly. This natural antibiotic is highly sensitive to an acidic environment. Therefore, after ingestion, penicillin G is destroyed by gastric juice in the stomach and does not provide the expected therapeutic effect.

What is penicillin VK?

This is the second natural antibiotic from the penicillin group, otherwise known as phenoxymethylpenicillin. It differs from penicillin G by that it can be used orally.

Penicillin VK is typically was manufactured as a pill, elixir or suspension of potassium salt. There are many semisynthetic penicillins. They differ by administration mode, resistance to an acid medium, effects on different types of bacteria. This type of antibiotics includes:

  • Nafcillin
  • Ampicillin
  • Amoxicillin

Semisynthetic penicillins are characterized by high therapeutic activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Semisynthetic penicillins differ from natural antibiotics that pathogenic bacteria show less resistancy to their antibacterial properties.

What is penicillin resistance?

If a bacterial infection can not be cured with penicillin, bacteria that caused the infection has natural or acquired resistance to the penicillin effects.

The bacterium can generate resistance to the penicillin effect for several years and even decades. Therefore, the list of bacteria with penicillin resistance is periodically updated with new types of pathogens.

Penicillin does not provide toxic effect on the human body. However, some people may be individually hypersensitive to the drug.

What is penicillin allergy?

If an allergic reaction appears after penicillin antibiotics, the use of this type of antibiotics should be stopped. The most common symptoms of penicillin allergy include hives, swelling, or itching.

If penicillin allergy symptoms seem to be serious, the patient may require hospitalization. Some allergy symptoms are very similar to undesirable reactions, caused by penicillin.

What are penicillin side effects?

In addition to the antibacterial effect, penicillin may cause adverse reactions, including difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, nausea or diarrhoea.

To be sure that these adverse events are not symptoms of allergy to penicillin or not caused by another drug, the patient may need to pass a test for hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

Also unwanted effects can be caused by penicillin overdose.

Penicillin allergy

 

Penicillin is the name of the group of antibacterial drugs prescribed for treatment and prophylaxis of various types of infectious diseases (including bacterial endocarditis or rheumatic heart disease).

Penicillin advantage is that they are cheaper than new-generation antibiotics. One of Penicillin disadvantage is that they may cause mild to moderate allergic reactions in some patients.

The risk of allergy to penicillin is observed in patients with a history of atopic allergy, allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, asthma. Hereditary factors do not influence risks of penicillin allergy. Therefore, hypersensitivity to penicillin in the parents does not mean that Penicillin allergy is observed in their children.

Symptoms of penicillin allergy can be classified by several different grounds. If allergy symptoms appear within one hour after the penicillin use, they are called hypersensitivity reactions. Key signs of hypersensitivity include exercise-induced asthma, angiooedema, hives, or anaphylaxis.

If symptoms of penicillin allergy appear within 72 hours after the use of antibiotic, they are called nonimmediate reactions. Delayed allergic reactions occur in three days after intake of Penicillin.

The first signs of Penicillin allergy can be hives, rash, angioedema, itchy eyes and skin, wheezing, or swollen lips. People with hypersensitivity to Penicillin may experience such severe reactions as difficult breathing, low blood pressure, vertigo, or faint. Also nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, blueness of skin, weaker pulse rate, or diarrhoea can be observed.

Symptoms of nonimmediate and delayed reactions may be observed as toxic epidermal necrolysis, exanthematous drug eruption, hemolytic anemia, tubulo-interstitial nephritis, or serum sickness.

Penicillin allergy is often diagnosed by skin testing, consisting of intradermal testing or skin-prick. Skin testing is the most reliable and accurate method for determination of Penicillin allergy. The exact diagnosis of Penicillin allergy is very important, because it helps prevent side effects and avoid serious complications.

Skin-prick means introduction of a small amount of Penicillin and saline onto different skin areas using a thin needle. Redness, itching and burning in a site of Penicillin administration mean positive result of Penicillin allergy test. If the skin is not changed, the result of Penicillin allergy is considered to be negative.

For intradermal testing, a drop of Penicillin and a drop of saline are applied to the skin. Then, small incisions are to be done in the application sites. Results of this method are defined the same way as in the Skin-prick.

Medical examination at Penicillin allergy includes skin testing and chest examination. Maculopapular rash or hives can be observed on the skin. Damaged mucous membrane may indicate toxic epidermal necrolysis. If a patient with Penicillin allergy experiences stridor or bronchospasm, the respiratory system should be examined.

The first stage of treatment of Penicillin allergy is to confirm the diagnosis and to exclude antibiotic, caused allergy. The patient should be injected with epinephrine to prevent fainting. In addition, the patient should wear a special Medic Alert bracelet, indicating the drug /drugs that cause allergy. In case of fainting, the doctor learns about allergy from this bracelet.

Once diagnosed, hypersensitivity to Penicillin is to be reduced. To prevent hypersensitivity to Penicillin, low doses of Penicillin should be periodically administered, being doubled every 15 minutes.  Penicillin administration should be continued till a full dose is achieved.

Most patients with Penicillin allergy may experience adverse reactions to cephalosporins, for example, Cefuroxime, Cefuzonam, Ceftriaxone or Ceftaroline. When using several antibiotics at the same time, cross reactivity is observed. In such a case the skin testing should be done in the patient, and in case of a positive result the patient should switch cephalosporin to another antibiotic.

Penicillin allergy is often observed in children. But skin testing is rarely done in case of rash in children. Many children just get a special penicillin allergic label, wearing it throughout their life.

  • Beta-lactam antibiotics are strictly forbidden in penicillin allergy, such as: Meropenem, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, Imipenem, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Ertapenem, Ceftazidime, Cefalexin, Doripenem, Aztreonam, Cefradine.
  • Patients with a history of penicillin allergy can be indicated with alternative antibiotics: Oxytetracycline, Erythromycin, Ofloxacin, Doxycycline, Vancomycin, Norfloxacin, Daptomycin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, Linezolid, Sulfadiazine, Teicoplanin, Lymecycline, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Rifampacin, Azithromycin, Levofloxacin.

 

Macrolide antibiotics

Macrolide antibiotics (MA) belong to a group of antibiotics of natural origin and they have been used in therapy of infectious diseases for over half a century.

Macrolide antibiotics have a complex cyclic structure with bacteriostatic mechanism of action. In low concentration of macrolide antibiotics, bacteria do not die, but cease to multiply.

Indications for using all macrolide antibiotics are different types of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections (upper and lower), sexually transmitted infections, oral infections, infections of skin and soft tissues.

In addition, macrolide antibiotics are prescribed in intolerance to cephalosporins and penicillin allergy. Furthermore, macrolide antibiotics are used in the treatment of pertussis. The main advantage of macrolides compared to other antibiotics is their minimal toxicity.

Macrolide antibiotics are subdivided into two classes according to the method of obtaining: natural and semisynthetic. The list of macrolide antibiotics includes more than 10 different antibacterial agents. One of the first macrolides developed in the middle of the last century is Erythromycin.

Erythromycin is the first natural macrolide antibiotic and is actively used in clinical practice for treatment and prevention of a broad spectrum of diseases caused by bacterial infections for more than 60 years.

Erythromycin is effective in treatment of various bacterial infections, including such common ENT diseases as tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis and maxillary sinusitis. Erythromycin is not contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Erythromycin inhibits function of liver enzymes responsible for destruction of other drugs. Therefore, some drugs are retained in the body causing toxic effects during interaction with these macrolide antibiotics.

The drug is taken on an empty stomach. Erythromycin somewhat more often causes nausea than other macrolide antibiotics. Do not consume alcohol when using Erythromycin.

Macrolide antibiotic Erythromycin has been used in medical practice for a long time and some bacteria have acquired resistance to it. In this case, use of more modern bacteriostatic antibiotics is recommended, e.g., Azithromycin. This drug is one of the most commonly used semisynthetic MA.

Azithromycin is best to take on an empty stomach. During pregnancy, this drug is used only if necessary and with an increased caution. The use of Azithromycin is contraindicated in severe liver and kidney dysfunctions.

A distinctive feature of macrolide antibiotics is that this group rarely causes allergy. However, if allergy symptoms appear, the use of MA should be discontinued. Among other adverse reactions of the drug, such disorders of gastrointestinal tract as diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain or discomfort in the abdomen are found.

Long-term use or use of high doses of MA increases the risk of liver dysfunction. When taking some drugs of macrolide group, there is a risk of dizziness, headache, and even the development of mental disorders.

Macrolide antibiotics are produced in the form of tablets, suspensions and solution for injections. Macrolide antibiotics belong to the least toxic antibiotics and, so they are well tolerated. This is one of the safest groups of antimicrobial drugs that is confirmed by numerous clinical studies.

Therefore, macrolide antibiotics are classified as having favorable safety profile for patients. This allows using them in children, elderly people, as well as during pregnancy.

If you have been prescribed with macrolide antibiotics and you want to buy them at a low price, you can find cheap antibiotic drugs on online pharmacy. Before buying macrolide antibiotics online, you can ask a pharmacist of online pharmacy all your questions about macrolides.

Intravenous antibiotics

 

Antibiotics are used to treat various infections in children and adults. Depending on the severity and type of bacterial infection, antibiotics can be administered various ways, including orally, rectally, vaginally, intranasally, transdermally, inhalation, and endotracheally.

Intravenous antibiotics are used when oral antibiotics are poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, or when bacterial infection puts a serious risk for the patient’s health. An anti-bacterial effect is achieved in intravenous administration of antibiotics more quickly than orally.

Application of antibiotics is considered to be preferred for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Antibiotics can be administered orally in milder UTIs. The list of antibiotics recommended in UTI includes:

  • Doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin);
  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro);
  • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin);
  • Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax);
  • Cephalexin (Keflex);
  • Fosfomycin (Monurol);
  • Levofloxacin (Levaquin);
  • Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Macrobid).

In acutely toxic urinary tract infections, the patients are administered with intravenous antibiotics at hospitalization or if unable to take oral antibiotics. Their application should be initiated only after the urine test results.

It should be noted that certain intravenous antibiotics for UTI treatment contain two active ingredients. For example, for intravenous Septra injection, solution contains antibacterial agents Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole.

Besides intravenous antibiotics are effective in treatment of infectious diseases of the urogenital system, they are recommended for treatment of serious infections caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA).

For example, intravenous administration of Vancomycin antibiotic can cure MRSA-infections of the bone tissues, and injectable antibiotic Linezolid is recommended for treatment of persistent MRSA infections.

Intravenous antibiotics can be indicated for treatment of infectious inflammatory diseases (including Lyme disease), caused by bites of ticks. The most popular intravenous antibiotics, used in Lyme disease, are as follows: Doxycycline, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, or Penicillin G potassium.

Some intravenous antibiotics are included in oral antibiotic therapy. For example, patients with streptococcal cellulitis can be administered with oral antibiotic Probenecid and intravenous administration of antibiotic Cefazolin.

Patients requiring for long-term antibiotic therapy can use intravenous antibiotics at home.

Intravenous antibiotics can be used in dozens of different diseases, including: cystic fibrosis, Whitmore’s disease, bronchiectasis, liver abscess, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, sepsis, flesh-eating disease, and endocarditis.

If you are going to buy intravenous antibiotics without prescription, but have never tried injection therapy of bacterial infections at home, ask your pharmacist. You can buy injectable antibiotics online and get free consultation of the pharmacist – anywhere in the world.

History of antibiotics

The history of antibiotics is associated with British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming. In 1928, Fleming discovered penicillin, considered to be a breakthrough in science and an important milestone in the antibiotics history.

The first antibiotic was discovered accidentally.  Sterility was nearly observed at Alexander Fleming’s laboratory, and favorable conditions for mold appeared. Fleming failed to fight against it.

Alexander Fleming was studying properties of staphylococci, grown at the lab plates, known as a Petri dish. One day Fleming noticed grown fungi colony in one of the Petri dishes with Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming paid attention that bacteria were not grown around the mold.

The scientist began to investigate the mold and to conduct experiments. He managed to isolate an active substance from the mold destroying bacterial cells, named penicillin. But Fleming could not isolate pure penicillin. It complicated the development of technology for antibiotic production, to become a crucial milestone in history of antibiotics.

Bacteriologist Florey and biochemist Chain coped with this task. They first used penicillin to treat bacterial infections in 1941. In 1945 Fleming, Florey, and Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases” adding their names forever into history of antibiotics.

The discovery of antibiotics started the new era in treatment of bacterial infections. Thanks to antibiotics, infectious disease mortality was significantly reduced, including infant mortality, infectious diseases were effectively fought against, and the average life expectancy was increased by about 33 years.

Popularity of penicillin was caused not only by medical use. History of antibiotics is associated with agriculture development as well, especially livestock farming. Antibiotics are added to animal feed to fight against various infections spread.

Antibiotics are added to animal feed worldwide for over a long period of fattening animals. Some types of antibiotics:

  • Stimulate livestock productivity and reproduction
  • Provideextra live weight gain
  • Shorten animal fattening period
  • Help to reduce costs for livestock production

All this is considered to be a huge benefit for antibiotics use in livestock production.

The global antibiotics production was launched in 1952. Today, however, the history of antibiotics should be redrawn. Antibiotics are not a panacea for all ills, because bacteria are constantly adapting to any new types of antibiotics.

Resistance of bacteria in history of antibiotics is believed to be a serious problem around the world. Modern epidemiological situation requires for improvement of infection prophylaxis­­, changes in manufacturing methods, indication and use of antibiotics. Modern scientists add a new page in the book of  history of antibiotics.

Colistin resistance

Colistin belongs to a group of polymyxins – antibiotics, therapeutic effect of which is to destroy cytoplasmic membrane of virus cells. This drug is widely used for treatment of infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria against which many other antibiotics are powerless.

However recently, scientists and experts all over the world are seriously concerned about the fact that bacteria have begun to develop a mechanism of resistance to Colistin. One of the reasons for concern is the lack of antibiotics commercially available that have antibacterial properties identical to Colistin properties.

A distinctive feature of Gram-negative bacteria lies in the fact that not each antibiotic can destroy their outer membrane. Researchers see a serious danger in Colistin resistance, which Gram-negative bacteria develop. Since, it is difficult to quickly find another drug to treat diseases caused by such microbes as Enterobacter or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The problem of acquired antimicrobial resistance is not new in medicine. To treat infectious diseases, antibiotics have been widely used by health professionals and patients already for long. This contributes to the fact that bacteria adapt to unfavorable conditions. However, Colistin resistance has come as a surprise to health care specialists.

In 2012, gene of Colistin resistance was detected in Denmark. The first bacterium that has demonstrated resistance to antibacterial properties of Colistin was Escherichia coli. Besides this gram-negative bacterium, more than 15 other bacteria that also possess the gene of antimicrobial resistance were found in the patient’s body according to data of studies.

In addition to the constant increase in the number of bacteria manifesting resistance to Colistin, scientists have noticed another interesting, but disturbing fact. During clinical tests, it was found that antimicrobial resistance, which bacteria develop to Colistin, is actively transferred from one bacterium to another.

According to data of studies, transfer of Colistin resistance gene is carried out not only between Gram-negative bacteria, but also between bacteria of other types. This may lead to rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance in all countries in which some bacteria have already formed a resistance to Colistin.

It should be noted that the gene, which causes Colistin resistance might promote the development of resistance to other antibiotics, including antibacterial medications of cephalosporin and penicillin group. For several years, the problem of Colistin resistance is studied in Denmark and bacteriologists from other countries join to the decision of this problem.

Can antibiotics make you sick

 

Antibiotics are considered to be effective in treatment for many infectious diseases. However, under certain circumstances, use of antibiotics can cause harm to health and even make you sick. It is easy to understand when you need antibiotics and when other drugs.

Can antibiotics make you sick? Yes if:

  • you have an infection caused by a virus (including influenza or bronchitis);
  • you are not sick (except rare cases when antibiotics are used for prophylaxis);
  • you do not have an infectious disease (for example, anemia).

Can antibiotics make you sick, tired, cold?

Antibiotics should not be used in treatment of common cold. Since it is a viral infection, antibiotics can make you feel worse. Also, antibiotics may cause side effects, such as nasopharyngitis or increased body temperature.

Can antibiotics make you sick if you don’t need them?

To avoid health problems, never take antibiotics if you do not need them. Do not use them if you have common viral diseases such as flu or cough. The use of antibiotics may cause side effects such as allergic reactions, renal diseases, rash, or dizziness.

Can antibiotics make you sick while pregnant?

Pregnant women take antibiotics for treatment of certain infections, which may appear during pregnancy. It may be urinary tract infections, pre-term rupture of membranes or infections of the beta streptococcus group.

Some Cephalosporins, for example Cefotetan, when used while pregnant, may cause severe immune hemolytic anemia. Furthermore, the use of first generation Cephalosporins (including Cefadroxil) may cause icterus. Other Cephalosporins may be useful when pregnant, but only in case of severe bacterial sepsis.

Such antibiotic as Erythromycin is not recommended to be used when pregnant. Its use can result in liver diseases in newborns, and premature rupture of membranes – in mothers.

Can antibiotics make you sick or nauseated?

Too frequent use of antibiotics may cause gastrointestinal side effects, such as vomiting, nausea or diarrhea. These side effects can lead to serious illness such as vaginal thrush in women.

If you take antibiotics, you should be always aware that they can do harm only in case of improper use or if used when not needed. You should comply with recommendations on antibiotics use to avoid many side effects.

Broad spectrum antibiotics

In contrast to narrow-spectrum antibiotics that are active only against certain groups of bacterial types, broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacterial infections.

In general, broad-spectrum antibiotics have high antibacterial activity not only against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria, but also against other microorganisms that cause superinfections.

Some lists of broad-spectrum antibiotics include antibiotic agents as follows:

  • penicillins (amoxicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin)
  • cephalosporins (cefixime, cefpodoxime, cefepime)
  • fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin)
  • aminoglycosides (gentamicin, streptomycin, neomycin)
  • tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline)

Uncomplicated UTIs (including acute cystitis) are some of the most frequently occurring infections in adults. Most commonly broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribed to treat UTIs, are fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin.

The mechanism action of these antibacterial agents is based on suppression of process of growth and reproduction of pathogenic bacteria. Common side effects caused by the use of fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin include nausea, diarrhea, and mild stomach pain. Herewith, these reactions are mild and eventually disappear.

When choosing an antibiotic for UTI treatment, pay attention to such criteria as spectrum of activity against suspected uropathogens, safety profile, pharmacokinetics of the drug and severity of infectious diseases.

Commonly, the duration of UTI treatment with such broad-spectrum antibiotics as amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin makes about 3 days, but with antibiotic agent fosfomycin – 1 day.

One of the most common causative agents of infectious diseases of the respiratory system is Chlamydia pneumoniae, which causes lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) both in children and in adults.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics of first line used to treat pneumonia are penicillins (for example, amoxicillin, augmentin). If the patient suffers from allergy to penicillins, treatment of respiratory infections can be conducted with erythromycin or azithromycin (macrolide antibiotics).

Tetracyclines are a group of antibiotics used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. Antibiotics of tetracycline group are effective in treatment of Lyme Disease, upper respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis), mild acne, UTIs, sexually transmitted diseases.

Note that tetracyclines can be prescribed to treat a number of infection types caused by bacteria and protozoa in dogs and cats. To treat and control periodontal disease in pets, Doxycycline (for example, Doxirobe, Heska) can be used. For treatment of bacterial pneumonia, bacterial enteritis, UTI and wound infections in cats and dogs, Terramycin capsules or Terramycin ointment is used.

Cephalosporins are a large group of antibiotics used both in animals and in humans, since they are well tolerated and have a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.

Cephalosporins can be administered orally or by injection and are effective in treating staph infections and various types of skin infections in children and adults. Often, broad-spectrum antibiotics of cephalosporin group are used to prevent bacterial infections after surgical procedures.

For treatment of skin infections, wounds and abscesses in dogs and cats, cephalosporin Cefpodoxime (Simplicef) can be used, but for antibiotic therapy of superficial bacterial pyoderma – cephalosporin Cephalexin (Rilexine).

Broad-spectrum antibiotics of aminoglycoside group are prescribed if other antibiotics are ineffective. Aminoglycosides are active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, aerobic gram-negative bacilli and staphylococci.

If you have been prescribed with antibiotics, but they are very expensive in your region, you can find cheap broad-spectrum antibiotics on online pharmacies. To purchase broad-spectrum antibiotics online, you do not need a prescription, so you can order a drug for treatment of bacterial infection in just a few minutes.